Three types of states

On the basis of the attitude of the state towards religion, three types of states can be conceived of: (a) Atheistic State: The state is anti-religion and hence, condemns all religions. (b) Theocratic State: The state is pro-religion and hence, declares one particular religion as the state religion, as for example, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Sri … Read more

42nd Amendment Act of 1976

The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 transferred five subjects to Concurrent List from State List, that is, (a) education, (b) forests, (c) weights and measures, (d) protection of wild animals and birds, and (e) administration of justice; constitution and organisation of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts.


Nidhi refers to any mutual benefit society notified by the Central Govt as a Nidhi Company. They are created mainly for cultivating the habit of thrift and savings amongst its members. •The companies doing Nidhi business (borrowing from members and lending to members only), are known under different names such as Nidhi, Permanent Fund, Benefit … Read more

Logistics Performance Index

Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is released by World Bank as part of its report every two years based on a world-wide survey of stakeholders. LPI index measures countries across 6 components: (i) Customs, (ii) Quality of trade and transport related infrastructure, (iii) Ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, (iv) Logistics quality and competence, (v) Tracking … Read more

[Solved] The post of Speaker is crucial in our parliamentary democracy. In this context, contrast the Speaker’s institutions in India with Britain. Do you think the Indian Speaker’s Office should be modeled like the British counterpart? (15 mark) (250 words)

In our Parliamentary democracy, the Speaker’s office plays a critical role. The Speaker is the guardian of Parliamentary democracy’s traditions. Within the House, she is the final interpreter of the Constitution. In the Warrant of Precedence, she stands next only to the President, the Vice-President, and the Prime Minister. The office’s expenses are charged to … Read more

[Solved] “The frequent use of the ordinance route for important legislation undermines parliamentary democracy.” Comment. (10mark) (150 words)

The ordinance is an emergency provision, through which the executive can make laws when the parliament is not in session. Indian constitution under the articles 123 and 213 makes provision for an ordinance making power of union and the states respectively.  Ordinance-making power is an exceptional provision with the executive to respond to unforeseen circumstances. … Read more