In our country, the migration of rural people to towns and cities is increasing drastically. This is causing serious problems both in the rural as well as in the urban areas. In fact, things are becoming really unmanageable. Can you analyze this problem in detail and indicate not only the socio-economic but also the emotional and attitudinal factors responsible for this problem? Also, distinctly bring out why— 1. Educated rural youth are trying to shift to urban areas; 2. Landless poor people are migrating to urban slums; 3. Even some farmers are selling off their land and trying to settle in urban areas taking up petty jobs. 4. What feasible steps can you suggest which will be effective in controlling this serious problem of our country?

The allure of the benefits provided by cities draws people from rural areas to metropolitan areas. In addition, a lack of work prospects and social mobility in rural areas draws people from the poorest strata of society to cities. There is a widespread belief that people can make fortune in larger cities, which attracts people from rural areas. Furthermore, landless people in villages, as well as people who own land but live in an almost abandoned hamlet, have nowhere to return home. Agriculture is no longer profitable, and cities appear to offer a variety of job opportunities.

Rural areas suffer from a serious lack of infrastructure and development, causing educated individuals to migrate to cities in search of adequate career prospects. Poor landless individuals who do not have their own land to till in the rural go to urban slums where they suffer for housing, water, and so on. They want to try their luck working in jobs that cities offer. Farmers with land, on the other hand, are unable to recover even their basic agricultural expenditures and are saddled by debt. Petty occupations in cities at least provide regular salaries from which some of their debt can be repaid.

Infrastructure development in rural areas, promotion/encouragement of rural businesses and enterprises, and incentives for large firms to locate factories in rural areas could all help to minimise migration to cities.

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